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Section II Reading Comprehension
Read the following text carefully and then ...... written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
It was only after I started to write a weekly column about the medical journals, and began to read scientific papers from beginning to end, that I realized just how bad much of the medical literature frequently was. I came to recognize various signs of a bad paper: the kind of paper that purports to show that people who eat more than one kilo of broccoli a week were 1.17 times more likely than those who eat less to suffer late in life from pernicious anaemia. (46) There is a great deal ...... and short-lived dietary enthusiasms.
Why is so much bad science published? ...... Bad Science’, published on the Royal Society’s open science website, attempts to answer this intriguing and important question. It says that the problem is not merely that people do bad science, but that our current system of career advancement positively encourages it. What is important is not truth, but publication, which has become almost an end in itself. There has been a kind of inflationary process at work: (47) nowadays anyone ...... the same post only 10 years ago. Never mind the quality, then, count the number.
(48) Attempts have been made to ......an applicant’s papers. This is the famed citation index, that is to say the number of times a paper has quoted elsewhere in the scientific literature, the assumption being that an important paper will be cited more often than one of small account. (49) This would be reasonable if it were ...... in return for similar favours.
Boiling down an individual’s output to ...... simple quantitative metrics to assess researcher merit are likely to be quite great. (50) If we are serious about ensuring that our science is ......